On the Audiovisual domain page we present information about the distribution and consumption of feature films in particular via cinemas and streaming services. Attention is also paid to audiovisual production. For the Audiovisual domain, the Culture Monitor currently focuses mainly on the film sector. In the future This domain will be further expanded with, for example, the addition of information about developments surrounding the Dutch broadcasting system. 


De coronapandemie zorgde voor verstoringen en verschuivingen in het domein Audiovisueel. De omzet van bioscopen daalde sterk door de verplichte sluitingen. Grote buitenlandse films werden uitgesteld, waardoor juist het marktaandeel van de Nederlandse film steeg. Na de heropening van bioscopen begon zowel het distributie- als productieproces een inhaalslag te maken: uitgestelde films werden in een korte tijdspanne alsnog uitgebracht of geproduceerd. In 2022 begon de bioscoopbranche te herstellen, met een stijging van het aantal bioscoopbezoeken, hoewel nog steeds onder het niveau van vóór de coronapandemie. In 2023 zette dit herstel door met bijna 32 miljoen verkochte bioscoopkaartjes en een omzetstijging van 31% ten opzichte van het voorgaande jaar.

Tijdens de lockdowns groeiden streamingdiensten snel, wat leidde tot discussies over herinvesteringen en een grotere vraag naar nieuwe verhalen. Sinds 1 januari 2024 zijn grote streamingdiensten in Nederland verplicht 5% van hun jaaromzet te investeren in Nederlandse audiovisuele producties, waardoor er meer financiële middelen beschikbaar komen voor Nederlandse content en het aanbod van Nederlandse verhalen op streamingplatforms toeneemt.

Key figures

The visualizations below contain data on the turnover of the audiovisual sector in the Netherlands, the turnover of video-on-demand in the Netherlands, the number of feature films produced, the production value of Dutch feature films, visits to cinemas and film theatres, the number of cinema films released and the share of Dutch films in the cinema. You can switch between the different graphs via the tabs above each figure.


€ x 1.000.000
€ x 1.000.000

Source: Netherlands Film Fund


€ x 1.000.000

Source: Netherlands Film Fund

Cinemas and movie theaters


Source: Dutch Association of Cinemas and Film Theaters

What else do we want to know about the Audiovisual domain?

There are few to no figures available regarding the largest players: the streaming services. The turnover of video-on-demand in the Netherlands increases annually estimated by the Dutch Film Fund because the vast majority of streaming services do not make such figures public. A concrete comparison between, for example, the market share of Dutch titles in cinemas and Dutch titles on the largest VOD platforms is also not possible due to the lack of data. In addition, the catalogs of streaming services must, under the European audiovisual media services directive contain at least 30 percent European titles, which also makes data transparency in this area necessary.

In addition to the trends and developments described, it is important to keep an eye on the shift in 'the traditional window', which refers to the time between the premiere in the cinema and distribution via, for example, streaming services. In 2020, these windows were drastically shortened or completely abandoned due to the pandemic, resulting in some films appearing earlier or even directly on VOD platforms. In 2021, cinemas were also able to show certain films exclusively for a shorter period of time, reducing the traditional window past seems to be (Faughnder 2020, Clark 2021). A new model could perhaps emerge from Netflix's collaboration with a number of major cinema chains in several countries, including the United States, in releasing the film Glass Onion: A Knives Out Mystery in 2022. The cinemas were allowed to show this new film for a week and the premiere on Netflix followed a month later (Dijksterhuis 2022b).

The changing distribution flow has major implications for professional practice. It was not without reason that actress Scarlett Johansson sued the film company Disney when it released the superhero film Black Widow – starring Johansson – was released in theaters and on streaming platform Disney+ on the same day, which could have a negative impact on its revenues. Because while income from cinema revenues is contractually fixed and flows back into the value chain, VOD platforms usually work with a fixed rate (Keck 2021). The Dutch protagonists of the Netflix hit series Undercover for example, do not benefit financially from the success, because there are no (yet) legal agreements about existence (Waaijers 2021).

Other developments to monitor are related to public broadcasting, the part of the sector that will also receive more attention in future updates of the Audiovisual domain. To strengthen the production and visibility of Dutch films, agreements are also made between the NPO and independent film products. Eighteen feature films are produced annually in this way, partly financed by the Netherlands Film Fund and the NPO. These feature films will be exclusively available via the NPO for three years no later than eight months after their cinema premiere (Uslu 2022b).

Want to know more about the Audiovisual domain?

View more data about the Audiovisual domain the dashboard of the Culture Monitor.

More literature about the Audiovisual domain can also be found in the knowledge base of the Boekman Foundation.


ACM (2023)'ACM conclusion: acquisition of Talpa by RTL leads to a dominant position'. On:, 30 January.

AdAlliance (2020) 'Videoland introduces new subscription types: Basic, Plus and Premium'. On:, 14th of July.

Albers, M. (2022) 'Merger should make HBO Max and Discovery Plus ready for the future of streaming'. On:, 5 August.

Audify (2023) Audify Audio Annual Report 2022. Amsterdam: Audify.

Beekman, B. (2020) 'The pandemic has turned the film world upside down: not Hollywood but Dutch Filmworks is now the main supplier'. On:, October 28.

Blokland, R. (2021) 'No cinemas have collapsed yet, but the small cinemas are having a hard time'. On:, 29th of July. 

Busch, G. (2020) '“Next year will be a disaster year for small films”'. On:, December 21.

Clark, T. (2021) 'How the movie-theater industry will be permanently changed by the pandemic, as major Hollywood studios rethink their release strategies'. On:, 30 March.

Crone et al. (2023) You can't be what you can't see. Amsterdam: DSP group.

Dijksterhuis, E. (2021a) 'Reopened cinemas can count on an eager audience'. On:, 7th of June.

Dijksterhuis, E. (2021b) 'Merger of RTL and Talpa in the fight against big tech and 'the Netflixes''. On:, June 25th.

Dijksterhuis, E. (2022a) 'Next step in streaming war: subscription with advertising'. On:, Sept 5.

Dijksterhuis, E. (2022b) 'Netflix tests new release strategy with Knives Out 2'. On:, October 13.

Dijksterhuis, E. (2022c) 'Number of Netflix subscribers shrinks for the first time in ten years. On:, April 21.

Dijksterhuis, E. (2022d) 'Streaming service HBO Max also in the Netherlands'. On:, February 2th.

Dijksterhuis, E. (2022e) 'Another new streaming service to the Netherlands: SkyShowtime'. On:, June 14th.

Dijksterhuis, E. (2023) 'Strong growth in cinema attendance, but recovery will take some time'. On:, 10 January.

Engelshoven, I. van (2019) Principles of cultural policy 2021-2024. The Hague: Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.

Entertainment Business (2021)'Already more than 1,5 million visitors for No Time To Die '. On:, November 15.

Erven, E. van (2020) 'Online video turnover higher than cinemas for the first time'. On:, September 11nd.

Faughnder, R. (2020) 'The pandemic is changing how Hollywood releases movies: here's how'. On:, 27 August.

FDN and NVBF (2022a) Press release: Historically bad year for cinemas and movie theaters. Amsterdam: FDN and NVBF.

FDN and NVBF (2022b) 'Press presentation Film Distributors Netherlands & Dutch Association of Cinemas and Film Theaters'. On:, 11 January.

FDN and NVBF (2023a) Press release: cinema year 2022 sees the beginning of necessary recovery. Amsterdam: FDN and NVBF.

FDN and NVBF (2023b) Summary Key figures for year 2022. Amsterdam: FDN and NVBF.

FDN and NVBF (2024a) Summary Key figures for year 2023. Amsterdam: FDN and NVBF.

FDN and NVBF (2024b) Nederland ging weer volop naar de film in 2023. Amsterdam: FDN and NVBF.

Groot, K. de (2021) Cinema monitor 2020. Amsterdam: NVPI. 

Huijsdens, J. (2022). 'NATO's John Fithian during CinemaCon: 'simultaneous release is dead''. On:, 27th of April.

Huijsdens, J. (2023). 'Cinema visits in Europe still have some catching up to do' On:, 3 January.

Keck, C. (2021) 'Scarlett Johansson's Black Widow lawsuit has unearthed a huge problem with streaming'. On:, 5 August.

COLOR (2022) 'Press release: Ministry of Education, Culture and Science starts investigation into the COLOR driver'. On:, 15th of July.

Mulder, J. (2022) 'Netflix has good news about subscribers, but another question is on the minds of analysts'. On:, October 19.

Dutch Film Festival (2021a) 'Golden Film'. On:

Dutch Film Fund (2012) Policy plan 2013-2016: Innovation and perspective. Amsterdam: Netherlands Film Fund.

Dutch Film Fund (2018) Film facts & figures of the Netherlands: May 2018 issue. Amsterdam: Netherlands Film Fund.

Dutch Film Fund (2019) Film facts & figures of the Netherlands: May 2019 issue. Amsterdam: Netherlands Film Fund.

Dutch Film Fund (2020) Film facts & figures of the Netherlands: June 2020 issue. Amsterdam: Netherlands Film Fund. 

Netherlands Film Fund (2021a) Film facts & figures of the Netherlands: Summer 2021 issue. Amsterdam: Netherlands Film Fund. 

Dutch Film Fund (2021b) 'Apply now: Full Circle Screening Scheme'. On:, June 23.

Netherlands Film Fund (2022a) Film facts & figures of the Netherlands: Summer 2022 issue. Amsterdam: Netherlands Film Fund.

Dutch Film Fund (2022b) 'Full Circle Distribution Scheme 2022'. On:

Netherlands Film Fund (2022c) 'Sector presentation 2022: quality and ambition remain guiding principles in turbulent times'. On:

Dutch Film Fund (2023) Film facts & figures of the Netherlands: Summer 2023 issue. Amsterdam: Netherlands Film Fund.

Council for Culture (2018) View of so much more: audiovisual sector advice. The Hague: Council for Culture.

Reijn, H. (et al.) (2019) 'The circle of film'. On:, October 2.

Rutten, P. (2019) For a vibrant audiovisual culture. Haarlem: Paul Rutten Research.

ROSE stories (2022) 'Netflix and ROSE stories join forces: together strengthen diversity in Dutch content'. On:, 16 March.

Sanders, W. (2022) Better is not yet good: the position of women in the film and television sector 2011-2022Utrecht: Women in Focus, Utrecht University.

Slob, A. (2021) Results of collaboration between public broadcaster and the Dutch Film Fund and with independent producers. The Hague: Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.

Scholtens, J., Slabbekoorn, J. and Lauf, E. (2023) Media monitor 2023. Hilversum: Media Authority.

UNIC (2022)'Cinema-going in Europe in 2021'. On:, February 7.

Uslu, G. (2022a) Bill to amend the Media Act 2008. The Hague: Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.

Uslu, G. (2022b) Strength through collaboration: approach for a strong and visible Dutch cultural audiovisual offer. The Hague: Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.

Waaijers, C. (2021) 'A hit on Netflix does not earn Dutch actors extra money'. On:, 27 March.

Waarlo, N. (2021) '“I do think that the merger of Talpa and RTL feels like a defeat for John de Mol”'. On:, 23th of June.

Westerhuis, G. and W. van der Stee (2021). 'Cinemas must invest in service and experience, especially now'. On:, November 3.

Wolfs, K. (2021) 'Film & AV sector: Visible & invisible drama'. In: Culture & corona: a year later, 16-19. Amsterdam: Arts '92.

Zwol, C. van (2021) 'Cinemas are opening again with a generous offer'. On:, 1th of June.


In 2021 we spoke to the following people for the purpose of collecting information for the development of this domain page:

Accountability image

Exhibition studio Job, Joris & Marieke in Kunsthal Rotterdam / Photography: Lisa Maatjens